A brief history of cryptography essay

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A brief history of cryptography essay

The fact and fiction of this discipline is endless. Our intention in presenting this material is to provide interested persons, often school students, with basic information and links to resources that might assist them. We welcome suggestions, corrections, additions.

To prepare the message, a narrow strip of parchment or leather, much like a modern-day paper streamer, was wound around the SCYTALE and the message was written across it. Once unwound, for transport to the receiver, the tape displayed only a sequence of meaningless letters until it was re-wound onto a SCYTALE of exactly the same diameter.

This is still the basis for many popular modern-day techniques. Messages were encoded by substituting the letter in the text by one that is three positions to the right.

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A became D, V became Y etc. The reason why a substitution of three letters, and not four, two or six, was chosen has never been explained.

Although he had made the most important advance in cryptography in at least five hundred years, he did not develop his concept.

At the time, and for a considerable time afterwards this technique was believed to be unbreakable Le Chiffre Indechiffrable.

A brief history of cryptography essay

There was however a weakness in this cypher waiting to be exploited because the cyphertext produced by this method was vulnerable to the yet undiscovered statistical attack. By the next morning they had deduced enough of the message to be chilled by its content.

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This of course differed from the original for procedural reasons associated with its re-transmission from Washington to Mexico City. The decrypt of this was the copy released to the US press its use obscuring the fact that the British had obtained their information not from espionage in Mexico but decryption of the original telegram in London.

The Germans spotted the difference and took the bait. The deception was complete and the source was safe. The code breakers of room 40 were yet to benefit from the pen of Winston Churchill or their own historians!

This would take the form of two identical pads printed with lines of randomly generated letters. Using the Vigenere technique, each page is to be used to encrypt and decrypt ONE message and then destroyed. The weakness of the Vigenere square was the repetition of the key.

This new technique injected the same randomness into the cyphertext as was contained in the key and there was therefore no useable pattern or structure within the message.

Attacks seeking to exploit these weaknesses such as the Babbage and Kasiski tests, would fail. This in turn leads to accelerated sociological and technological change. The second world war became a defining moment in the history of cryptography and placed it squarely at the centre of military and political strategy from that time to the present day.

Struggling under the weight of axis forces in the west and Japan in the east, the use of encryption by the allied nations and the interception and decryption of enemy cyphers became a game of life and death.

In the evening of To protect this vital information, the message was encrypted using Japanese Naval code 25 or JN Unknown to the Japanese or, as some suggest, suspected but ignored, the Americans had broken this code in late it having been a subset of a US army and navy code used in the Spanish-American war of.

This resulted in the death of the most popular and, many say, capable officer in the Japanese navy robbing them of a brilliant and charismatic leader.

For those with a penchant for conspiracy theories concerning other decryptions of JN and associated radio traffic the book Betrayal at Pearl Harbor makes interesting reading. They also suggest that the British failed to alert the Americans in the hope that this would drag them into the war, which of course it did.Great Cryptography Books.

Reference. Encyclopedia of Cryptology. By David E.

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Newton A collection of essays by those who worked at Bletchley Park during World War II. The Hut Six Story. Gordon Welchman The most authoritative history of cryptography ever published.

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Oct 14,  · Hawking, the author of A Brief History of Time, who died in March, made the predictions in a collection of articles and essays. A brief history of A Brief History of Time by Stephen Hawking. Cryptography, including quantum cryptography Lots of people don't believe quantum crypto is practical.I don't believe the security proofs offered for entanglement-based quantum cryptosystems, because they assume that the strange behaviour observed in the Bell tests must result from nonlocal action.

A Brief History of Cryptography Cryptography, from the Greek root words kryptos and gráphō, together meaning "hidden writing", has existed almost as long as the written word. Down through the ages, the advantage in the battle between cryptologists (code makers) and cryptanalysts (code breakers) has changed hands many times.

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