The policy and research context Executive Summary Teacher quality matters. In fact, it is the most important school-related factor influencing student achievement. Moreover, teacher compensation represents a significant public investment: Given the size of this investment, there is remarkably little research to guide such critical decisions as whom to hire, retain, and promote.
Johns [ edit ] Adaptation of the Johns reflective model Professor of nursing Christopher Johns designed a structured mode of reflection that provides a practitioner with a guide to gain greater understanding of his or her practice. Reflection occurs though "looking in" on one's thoughts and emotions and "looking out" at the situation experienced.
Johns draws on the work of Barbara Carper to expand on the notion of "looking out" at a situation. Johns' model is comprehensive and allows for reflection that touches on many important elements.
It also helps us detect hegemonic assumptions—assumptions that we think are in our own best interests, but actually work against us in the long run. Our autobiography as a learner. Our autobiography is an important source of insight into practice.
As we talk to each other about critical events in our practice, we start to realize that individual crises are usually collectively experienced dilemmas.
Analysing our autobiographies allows us to draw insight and meanings for practice on a deep visceral emotional level. Seeing ourselves through learners' eyes, we may discover that learners are interpreting our actions in the way that we mean them.
But often we are surprised by the diversity A literature review on teacher effectiveness meanings people read into our words and actions. A cardinal principle of seeing ourselves through learners' eyes is that of ensuring the anonymity of their critical opinions.
We have to make learners feel safe. Seeing our practice through learners' eyes helps us teach more responsively.
Our colleagues serve as critical mirrors reflecting back to us images of our actions. Talking to colleagues about problems and gaining their perspective increases our chance of finding some information that can help our situation.
Theory can help us "name" our practice by illuminating the general elements of what we think are idiosyncratic experiences. Application[ edit ] Reflective practice has been described as an unstructured or semi-structured approach directing learning, and a self-regulated process commonly used in health and teaching professions, though applicable to all professions.
Professional associations such as the American Association of Nurse Practitioners are recognizing the importance of reflective practice and require practitioners to prepare reflective portfolios as a requirement to be licensed, and for yearly quality assurance purposes.
Hadiya Habib assert that there is one quality above all that makes a good teacher -the ability to reflect on what, why and how we do things and to adopt and develop our practice within lifelong learning.
Reflection is the key to successful learning for teachers and for learners. Students[ edit ] Students can benefit from engaging in reflective practice as it can foster the critical thinking and decision making necessary for continuous learning and improvement.
Students who have acquired metacognitive skills are better able to compensate for both low ability and insufficient information. Teachers[ edit ] The concept of reflective practice is now widely employed in the field of teacher education and teacher professional development and many programmes of initial teacher education claim to espouse it.
Reflecting on different approaches to teaching, and reshaping the understanding of past and current experiences, can lead to improvement in teaching practices. It is argued that, through the process of reflection, teachers are held accountable to the standards of practice for teaching, such as those in Ontario: The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation and footnoting.
References in this section should be converted to citation templates to follow the same citation style as the rest of article, per WP: January Learn how and when to remove this template message For students to acquire necessary skills in reflection, their teachers need to be able to teach and model reflective practice see above ; similarly, teachers themselves need to have been taught reflective practice during their initial teacher education, and to continue to develop their reflective skills throughout their career.
However, Mary Ryan has noted that students are often asked to "reflect" without being taught how to do so,  or without being taught that different types of reflection are possible; they may not even receive a clear definition or rationale for reflective practice.
Andrea Gelfuso and Danielle Dennis, in a report on a formative experiment with student teachers, suggest that teaching how to reflect requires teacher educators to possess and deploy specific competences. Due to the ever-changing context of healthcare and the continual growth of medical knowledge, there is a high level of demand on healthcare professionals' expertise.
Due to this complex and continually changing environment, healthcare professionals could benefit from a program of reflective practice.
They noted that the evidence to support curricular interventions and innovations promoting reflective practice remains largely theoretical.
Increased learning from an experience or situation Promotion of deep learning Identification of personal and professional strengths and areas for improvement Identification of educational needs Acquisition of new knowledge and skills Further understanding of own beliefs, attitudes and values Encouragement of self-motivation and self-directed learning Could act as a source of feedback Possible improvements of personal and clinical confidence Limitations to reflective practice include: However, the authors noted the challenges with melding the "circularity" of reflective practice theory with the "doing" of sustainability.Teacher Evaluation A Conceptual Framework and examples of Country Practices DECEMBER This paper was prepared for presentation at the OECD-Mexico Workshop Towards a Teacher Evaluation Framework in Mexico: International Practices, Criteria and Mechanisms, held in Mexico City on December As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 75, lessons in math, English, science, history, and more.
Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. © LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE VALUE-ADDED MEASUREMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION HoonHo Kim and Diane Lalancette.
Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products. Review of school and instructional effectiveness research Jaap Scheerens In this chapter an overview will be given of the research literature on educational effectiveness research.
The term “educational effectiveness” is used as a general term that Instead of “instructional effectiveness” terms like teacher and teaching. In their major review of the research on teacher effectiveness Brophy & Good () conclude: to maximise student achievement the teacher should focus upon the quantity and pacing of instruction.