One will risk being roundly condemned if he, or she, points out the serious bottleneck that is presented when a community attempts, through the democratic process, to set plans for positive social action. A man is not permitted to hesitate about its merits, without the suspicion of being a friend to tyranny, that is, of being a foe to mankind?
As the absolute rule of kings weakened, Enlightenment philosophers argued for different forms of democracy. The war ended with the beheading of the king. Shortly after Charles was executed, an English philosopher, Thomas Hobbes —wrote Leviathana defense of the absolute power of kings. The title of the book referred to a leviathan, a mythological, whale-like sea monster that devoured whole ships.
Hobbes likened the leviathan to government, a powerful state created to impose order. Every person was free to do what he or she needed to do to survive.
The only way out of this situation, Hobbes said, was for individuals to create some supreme power to impose peace on everyone. Hobbes borrowed a concept from English contract law: The sovereign, created by the people, might be a person or a group.
The sovereign would make and enforce the laws to secure a peaceful society, making life, liberty, and property possible. Placing all power in the hands of a king would mean more resolute and consistent exercise of political authority, Hobbes argued.
Hobbes also maintained that the social contract was an agreement only among the people and not between them and their king.
Once the people had given absolute power to the king, they had no right to revolt against him. He feared religion could become a source of civil war.
In any conflict between divine and royal law, Hobbes wrote, the individual should obey the king or choose death. But the days of absolute kings were numbered. A new age with fresh ideas was emerging—the European Enlightenment. Enlightenment thinkers wanted to improve human conditions on earth rather than concern themselves with religion and the afterlife.
Enlightenment philosophers John Locke, Charles Montesquieu, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau all developed theories of government in which some or even all the people would govern. These thinkers had a profound effect on the American and French revolutions and the democratic governments that they produced.
Locke studied science and medicine at Oxford University and became a professor there. This event reduced the power of the king and made Parliament the major authority in English government.A strange thing is happening in modern philosophy: many philosophers don’t seem to believe that there is such a thing as human nature.
What makes this strange is that, not only does the new attitude run counter to much of the history of philosophy, but – despite loud claims to the contrary – it also goes against the findings of modern science.
A noble savage is a literary stock character who embodies the concept of the indigene, outsider, wild human, an "other" who has not been "corrupted" by civilization, and therefore symbolizes humanity's innate goodness..
In English, the phrase first appeared in the 17th century in John Dryden's heroic play The Conquest of Granada (), wherein it was used in reference to newly created man.
CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS FOUNDATION Bill of Rights in Action Spring () Developments in Democracy.
BRIA Home | How Women Won the Right to Vote | Have Women Achieved Equality? | Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau on Government. Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau on Government.
CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS FOUNDATION Bill of Rights in Action Spring () Developments in Democracy. BRIA Home | How Women Won the Right to Vote | Have Women Achieved Equality? | Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau on Government.
Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau on Government.
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IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history.