Health PeerNetBC has a wealth of resources to share with individual people, peer support groups and peer-led initiatives.
Associated issues[ edit ] Physical health issues[ edit ] There are many physical health factors associated with developmental disabilities.
For some specific syndromes and diagnoses, these are inherent, such as poor heart function in people with Down syndrome. People with severe communication difficulties find it difficult to articulate their health needs, and without adequate support and education might not recognize ill health.
Epilepsysensory problems such as poor vision and hearingobesity and poor dental health are over-represented in this population.
Mental health issues dual diagnoses [ edit ] Mental health issues, and psychiatric illnessesare more likely to occur in people with developmental disabilities than in the general population. A number of factors are attributed to the high incidence rate of dual diagnoses: With this information psychological diagnoses are more easily given than with the general population that has less consistent monitoring.
Access to health care providers: With consistent visits to health care providers more people with developmental disabilities are likely to receive appropriate treatment than the general population that is not required to visit various health care providers.
These problems are exacerbated by difficulties in diagnosis of mental health issues, and in appropriate treatment and medication, as for physical health issues. Common types of abuse include: Physical abuse withholding food, hitting, punching, pushing, etc.
Neglect withholding help when required, e. Psychological reactions to abuse were similar to those observed in the general population, but with the addition of stereotypical behaviour. The more serious the abuse, the more severe the symptoms that were reported.
In addition to abuse from people in positions of power, peer abuse is recognized as a significant, if misunderstood, problem. Rates of criminal offense among people with developmental disabilities are also disproportionately high, and it is widely acknowledged that criminal justice systems throughout the world are ill-equipped for the needs of people with developmental disabilities—as both perpetrators and victims of crime.
Challenging behaviour Some people with developmental disabilities exhibit challenging behavior, defined as "culturally abnormal behaviour s of such intensity, frequency or duration that the physical safety of the person or others is placed in serious jeopardy, or behaviour which is likely to seriously limit or deny access to the use of ordinary community facilities".
A lot of the time, challenging behavior is learned and brings rewards and it is very often possible to teach people new behaviors to achieve the same aims.
Challenging behavior in people with developmental disabilities can often be associated with specific mental health problems. This is especially the case where the services deliver lifestyles and ways of working that are centered on what suits the service provider and its staff, rather than what best suits the person.
In general, behavioral interventions or what has been termed applied behavior analysis has been found to be effective in reducing specific challenging behavior. Until the Enlightenment in Europe, care and asylum was provided by families and the Church in monasteries and other religious communitiesfocusing on the provision of basic physical needs such as food, shelter and clothing.
Stereotypes such as the dimwitted village idiotand potentially harmful characterizations such as demonic possession for people with epilepsy were prominent in social attitudes of the time.
Early in the twentieth century, the eugenics movement became popular throughout the world. This led to the forced sterilization and prohibition of marriage in most of the developed world and was later used by Hitler as rationale for the mass murder of mentally challenged individuals during the Holocaust.
The eugenics movement was later thought to be seriously flawed and in violation of human rights and the practice of forced sterilization and prohibition from marriage was discontinued by most of the developed world by the mid 20th century. The movement towards individualism in the 18th and 19th centuries, and the opportunities afforded by the Industrial Revolutionled to housing and care using the asylum model.
People were placed by, or removed from, their families usually in infancy and housed in large institutions of up to 3, people, although some institutions were home to many more, such as the Philadelphia State Hospital in Pennsylvania which housed 7, people through the smany of which were self-sufficient through the labor of the residents.
Some of these institutions provided a very basic level of education such as differentiation between colors and basic word recognition and numeracybut most continued to focus solely on the provision of basic needs.Managing and developing skills is key to professional development.
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Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments that arise before adulthood. Developmental disabilities cause individuals living with them many difficulties in certain areas of life, especially in "language, mobility, learning, self-help, and independent living".
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