The purpose of this section is to introduce you to the idea of qualitative research and how it is related to quantitative research and give you some orientation to the major types of qualitative research data, approaches and methods.
Often used in commercial areas such as market research, the goal of qualitative research is to provide answers as to why and how people come to make certain decisions. There are several different approaches to undertaking qualitative research. Ethnographic Research The ethnographic approach draws from anthropology, in which an entire culture is studied by an outsider.
Although ethnography was initially concerned with geographic location and ethnicity, the definition has expanded to include pretty much any organization of group, allowing for the study of a particular organization's culture. The most common ethnographic approach is simply to observe the participants by becoming immersed in the culture, taking extensive notes about observations and impressions.
Field Research Field research also takes its cues from anthropology but offers a broader approach to qualitative research, in that the researcher will literally go into the field -- or in the case of an organization, within that organization -- to observe the group in its natural state.
In this way, field research is similar to ethnography, since the field researcher will make extensive notes based on his observations. The difference is that a field researcher will go among his subjects, while an ethnographic approach finds the researcher observing from outside the culture.
The notes and data gathered can then be analyzed according to a variety of different criteria. Phenomenology Phenomenology can be considered a philosophical approach to undertaking qualitative research. The goal of phenomenology is to understand how others view the world, and how this view may vary from commonly held views by focusing on a person's subjective interpretations of what she experiences.
Phenomenology is done by interviewing the subjects to learn their impressions, and is frequently used in such fields as psychology, sociology and social work. Grounded Theory Initially developed in the s, grounded theory researchers attempt to develop theories about the phenomena that is being studied, but these theories must be grounded in observation.
As a result, core theoretical concepts are identified while the data is being gathered. Linkages between the theoretical concepts and the data are then formed.
Since each new observation can potentially lead to a new linkage, the process never really ends, and only stops when the researcher decides to conclude his study. Case Study Case study research presents a detailed analysis of a specific case. Unlike an ethnographic approach, which observes the entire group, a case study focuses on one specific facet, such as a person, group process or activity.
The processes involved in preparing a case study are interdisciplinary, so a variety of different theories and concepts can emerge when it comes to interpreting a case study.Types of Qualitative Data This module will provide an overview of the most common types of data collection methods used in qualitative research studies.
It also includes an assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Although quantitative and qualitative research generally differ along several important dimensions (e.g., the specificity of the research question, the type of data collected), it is the method of data analysis that distinguishes them more clearly than anything else.
To illustrate this idea, imagine a team of researchers that conducts a series. The appropriate research designs for case study base qualitative research are explanatory, descriptive and exploratory.
It also depends on the type of subject area you are focusing on. Design changes if it’s clinical or environmental based studies.
5 Types of Qualitative Research. STUDY. PLAY. Case Study. To understand one person or situation (or perhaps a very small number) in great depth.
Ethnography. To understand how behaviors reflect the culture or group. Phenomenological. To understand an experience from the participants' points of view. Types Of Qualitative Research Methods Qualitative research is a general term that includes several types of qualitative research methods that are employed, in order to provide an adequate explanation for certain phenomena and satisfying answers to the questions that such phenomena may raise.
Ways of Knowing According to Creswell (),There are three types of research design: quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods.
Although it is hard to separate the first two, often a research study tends to be more quantitative than qualitative or vice versa.